The determination of whether twins are identical or not depends on how the babies were formed. Non-identical twins, also known as fraternal twins, occur when separate fertilized eggs are involved.
Non-identical twins are no more similar than any other siblings and can be both males, both females, or one of each. They share common DNA, as is the case with siblings from different births.
On the other hand, identical twins are formed from a single fertilized egg that later splits into separate embryos, resulting in their DNA being exactly the same.
To ascertain whether multiple children from the same birth are genetically identical or not, zygosity testing, or twin testing, is used. This twin DNA test only requires cheek buccal cells, making sample collection easy and painless.
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Twin pregnancies are becoming more common due to fertility treatments and the trend of women waiting longer to have babies. In the UK, twins occur in about 1 in every 65 pregnancies (1.5%). This represents a significant increase from 1984 when 1% of every birth was a multiple birth.
African-American women are more likely to have twins than any other race, while Asian and Native Americans have the lowest rates of twins.
In total, around 12,000 sets of twins are born in the UK every year. Non-identical (or fraternal) twins are more common, accounting for two-thirds of all twins, while one-third are identical.
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It should be noted that identical twins do not run in families. There is no evidence to suggest that being from a family with identical multiples increases the odds of having identical twins.
However, non-identical twins do run in families. The heredity on the mother’s side increases the chances of a couple having non-identical twins. Research has found that having non-identical twins in a mother’s immediate family may double the chances of conceiving non-identical twins. This is because a certain gene predisposes some women to hyperovulation, where more than one egg is released during each menstrual cycle.
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Contrary to popular belief, twins do skip a generation. If a man inherits the hyperovulation gene from his mother, he may pass this gene on to his daughter. The daughter, in turn, is then more likely to release more than one egg when she ovulates and could conceive non-identical twins. In this case, the twins have skipped a generation.
While identical twins share the same DNA, surprisingly, they do not have identical fingerprints. Although they start with the same fingerprints at conception, the fetuses develop differently in the womb due to small changes in the womb environment, such as fluctuations in hormone levels. Additionally, as the twins start to move and touch the amniotic sac, unique ridges and lines are formed, resulting in different fingerprints. This is thought to occur around weeks 6-13 of pregnancy.
Similarly, identical twins also do not have identical freckles. The pattern of freckles and moles on the skin is caused by random mutations and will vary between identical twins.
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Another intriguing phenomenon is that twins could have different fathers. This is due to a medical phenomenon called superfetation, which occurs when a pregnant woman continues to ovulate and releases an egg a few weeks into her pregnancy. The second egg is fertilized, and the woman then becomes pregnant with two babies simultaneously.
Usually, when a woman becomes pregnant, several biological processes occur to prevent her from getting pregnant a second time. Hormones are released to halt ovulation, a “mucus plug” develops in the cervix to prevent sperm from traveling to the uterus, and the lining of the uterus changes, making it difficult for another embryo to implant.
Superfetation may go undetected because the two fetuses are so close in age that they may be considered twins. While extremely rare in humans, it is claimed to be more prevalent in animals such as rodents, rabbits, horses, and sheep.
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The incidence of twins varies in different countries. High rates of twins are found throughout Central Africa, with Benin having the highest national average of 27.9 twins per 1000 births (2.8%). On the other hand, twinning rates in Asia and Latin America are very low, often less than 8-10 per 1000 births (0.8-1%).
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Mirror twins, which account for about one-fourth of all identical twins, have reverse asymmetric features. In these rare cases, identical twins develop facing each other, making them exact reflections of one another. If one twin is right-handed, the other twin is left-handed, and they may have birthmarks on opposite sides of their bodies. They can even have hair that whorls in reverse directions.
Mirror image twins are thought to occur when the twins split from one fertilized egg later than usual. This can happen over a week up to 12 days after conception, and the two identical halves develop into separate individuals who are genetically identical. If a fertilized egg splits after 12 days, it would likely result in conjoined twins.
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Tall women are more likely to have twins. It is believed that taller women have more insulin-like growth factor (IGF), a protein released from the liver to stimulate growth in the shaft of long bones. Higher levels of IGF result in increased sensitivity of the ovaries, thus increasing a woman’s chance of ovulating. According to Dr. Gary Steinman, an attending physician at Long Island Jewish Medical Center, the more IGF a woman has, the greater chance she has of becoming pregnant with twins because IGF “governs the rate of spontaneous twinning.” In a previous study, Dr. Steinman also found that women who consume dairy products are five times more likely to have twins. This has been attributed to levels of IGF in cow’s milk.
Photo credits: FaƄiaпe Vargas
Twins have a secret language known as cryptophasia, which refers to a language developed by twins in early childhood that only they understand. Cryptophasia is thought to occur in up to 50% of identical or non-identical twins.
The secret language is formed when two very close babies are learning to speak a real language alongside one another and naturally often play and communicate with each other. As such, it is more common among twins because they are more likely to be around each other and develop at the same rate, although the phenomenon can also sporadically occur between two babies who are not twins. The language consists of inverted words and onomatopoeic expressions and often disappears soon after childhood once the children have learned a real language.
Are you in need of financial assistance but don't want to sell your property? A loan against property might be the ideal solution for you. This type of loan allows you to leverage the value of your property to secure a loan amount. In this article, we will provide you with a comprehensive guide on obtaining a loan against property. Follow these step-by-step instructions to make the process smooth and hassle-free.
Assessing Property Value
The first step in obtaining a loan against property is to assess the value of your property. You can hire a professional property evaluator or consult a real estate agent to determine its market worth. The lender will consider this valuation to calculate the loan amount they can offer you.
Once you have assessed your property's value, it's time to research different lenders who offer loans against property. Compare their interest rates, loan tenure, processing fees, and customer reviews. Choose a reputable lender that aligns with your requirements and offers favorable terms and conditions.
To apply for a loan against property, you need to gather the necessary documents. The typical documents include:
- Property ownership documents
- Identity proof
- Address proof
- Income proof
- Bank statements
- Tax returns
Ensure that you have all the required documents ready and organize them for easy access during the application process.
Now that you have chosen a lender and prepared the documents, it's time to submit the loan application. Fill out the application form provided by the lender, providing accurate information. Double-check the form to avoid any errors or discrepancies.
After submitting the application, the lender will initiate the property valuation process. They will send a representative to assess the property's condition, location, and market value. This valuation helps the lender determine the maximum loan amount they can offer you.
Loan Approval and Disbursement
Once the property valuation is complete and meets the lender's criteria, they will approve your loan application. The lender will communicate the approved loan amount, interest rate, and repayment terms. Upon agreement, the loan amount will be disbursed to your bank account.
Understanding the repayment terms is crucial before finalizing the loan agreement. The terms include the loan tenure, interest rate, and EMI (Equated Monthly Installment) amount. Ensure that you carefully review the repayment schedule and have a repayment plan in place.
Obtaining a loan against property can provide you with the financial flexibility you need without giving up ownership of your property. By following the step-by-step instructions outlined in this article, you can navigate through the process effectively. Remember to conduct thorough research, gather the necessary documents, choose a reliable lender, and understand the repayment terms.
FAQs1. Can I obtain a loan against any type of property?
Yes, you can obtain a loan against residential, commercial, or industrial properties.2. What happens if I default on the loan repayment?
Defaulting on loan repayment can lead to penalties, legal action, and the possibility of losing your property.3. Is the interest rate fixed or variable for a loan against property?
The interest rate can be either fixed or variable, depending on the terms agreed upon with the lender.4. Can I prepay the loan before the tenure ends?
Most lenders allow prepayment of the loan, but it may be subject to prepayment charges.5. How long does the loan approval process take?
The loan approval process can vary among lenders, but it typically takes a few days to a few weeks, depending on the documentation and property valuation process.
In conclusion, a loan against property is an excellent option for individuals in need of financial assistance. By following the step-by-step instructions provided in this article, you can secure a loan against your property efficiently. Remember to thoroughly assess your property value, research lenders, prepare the required documents, and understand the repayment terms. With careful planning and execution, you can leverage your property to fulfill your financial needs.